Reflections and Thoughts by Dr. Peter Cheng

Executive Director & Chief of Dialogue


This article is the third of a 9-part series by Dr. Peter Cheng that discusses the Who-ness and What-ness of A Real Leader who Shapes Culture and Drives Performance.



Real leaders adopt good character, the right attitudes, and they work on attributes that applaud prosocial behaviours for the common good of others in the community. Real leaders encourage their constituents towards positive thinking, embracing the right morals and ethical practices to make the world a better place. 


Last month I shared how you can build your team members' competence, which is one of the eight essentials of real leadership.  As a quick recap, real leaders seek and act on feedback, develop tenacity to learn to stay relevant, commit to transform their team members and ask quality questions to help others see the light. What about you? What are the areas in COMPETENCE that you need to work on? Have you taken action? 

In this sharing, I’d like to expound on the formation of Character, one of the essentials of the Who-ness of a real leader. How do we form our character? I’ll share my thoughts and experiences, and at the same time leverage the literature out there about character formation. In particular,  I’ll delve into why having good Character matters in Real Leadership.


Reputation And Character 

Abraham Lincoln once said, “Reputation is the shadow. Character is the tree.“ 

He advocated that one’s character is much more than one’s reputation, which is what you try to demonstrate for others to see.  Character defines the true self of who you are even when no one is regulating your behaviours or watching you. 

Character comprises a complexity of mental and ethical traits or qualities that are unique to an individual and are imbued into a person’s life.  Your character influences your response in any given situation.  In the context of leadership, building and embracing good character separates a real leader from others. If you have a good character, you’ll do the right and ethical things.

Real leaders characterise traits that support the other essentials of real leaders, to earn the trust and respect of their people so that they are engaged and transformed to excel and attain performance excellence for their organisations. These traits include being visionary, honest, ethical, humble, significant, self-disciplined, relentless & resilient and affirmative.  


Good Vs Bad Character

Proverbs 28:6 cites “Better is a poor man who walks in his integrity than a rich man who is crooked in his ways”.  This proverb is an excellent example of what a good character is,  which influences the intentional behaviours that you choose to demonstrate in situations when no one is watching.  Having said that, we do see both good and bad characters around. The question is, why would one choose to embrace bad character?

One theory suggests that the embracement of bad character is resultant from people succumbing to temptations to do wrongful things repeatedly. To justify their wrong doings, they build a psychological framework to “console” themselves; that it is”ok” to do the wrongful things. Over time, this shapes their character and dictates they way they behave.  People of good character are successful in overcoming temptations to do those wrongful things as they too have built a psychological framework that support right doings. 

In the paragraphs below, I discuss how values, moral principles and ethical principles have a bearing on this psychological framework that shapes character.  


What Forms Character? 

Leadership, leadership style, leadership skills, leadership definition, real leadership, authentic leadership, real leaders, authentic leaders, motivation, training and development, training, human resource management, human resources, strategy, Feedback, Organization, organisation, customer, goal, culture, team, quality competence, competence meaning, core competency, emotional competence, thought leader, role model, leadership development, personal development, course, learning, training, self-assessment, behaviour, leadership behaviour, leadership behaviours, lead, influence, values, ethics, ethical principles, moral principles, morality, character, essentials of real leadership, 8 essentials, eight essentials, 6 essentials, six essentials, character formation, leadership character

Most people have some values that they embrace.  Such values could be inculcated from their parents, teachers, religious leaders or even their bosses, among other sources. These values form the “inner compass” which is the philosophy that guides their behaviours in their interaction with people and daily issues.  Real Leaders build their character by first discovering what they truly believe in. Jim Collins once cited that values are enduring tenets of special importance to the person embracing them. Values do not require external justification and serve as a philosophy that shapes people’s character and ultimately, their behaviours. The clearer people are of their values, the clearer they’ll be about what to do or refrain from doing.  Hence, if you’re unclear about your values, you’ll find your behaviours flip-flopping in situations.

For example, if you're clear about embracing integrity, you will not give in to temptations to break promises, cheat on others, or fabricate stories to support your cause. On the contrary, if you’re unclear about embracing integrity, you’re likely to fall into the temptation to break promises, fabricate stories and so forth. You might find yourself justifying those actions and why they are “ok”, and this forms the psychological framework in you. Over time, such behaviours become acceptable by you. These multiple iterations of justifying your actions eventually has bearing on shaping your character. 


Intertwined Relationships Between Values, Morals And Ethics

The selection of your values is also influenced by your moral principles and ethical principles.  The concept of morality is based on understanding the difference between right and wrong and living according to that understanding of doing what is right. The concept of ethics is the philosophy of how morality guides individual and group behaviours. To put it simply, morals are your principles of doing the right things and ethics are the society’s rules and norms for doing the right things for the greater good of the society. Hence, morals can be seen as being the foundation of ethics.

The diagram shows the intertwined relationships between values, morals principles and ethical principles. When you go through life, you would likely be taught some values by your family, teachers and even friends.  Along the way, you’ll learn and develop moral and ethical principles that intertwine with the values you embrace. Whether morals are embraced before values or vice versa remains a debatable topic. Developing all three elements in a reiterative manner is like a 3-stranded cord that is not easily broken, thus forming the character of a person.

In summary, real leaders demonstrate good character that is nestled in values, moral principles and ethical principles. The clearer you are about the values that you embrace, the less likely you’ll be overcome by temptations to do wrongful, immoral and unethical things. What’s key to note here is that values, morals and ethics have reiterative relationships, forming a 3-stranded cord that can withstand the tests of critical incidents — situations that put a person’s values to test. 


Are you clear about your values? Do you have a set of moral and ethical principles that guide your behaviours? What would others say about the character you demonstrate? Which of the three elements in Character formation do you need to re-think about, to demonstrate good character in the eyes of others? Email to enquire on how your organisation can build leaders of good character.

In my next article, I will be discussing the essential of “Conviction With Courage” which is critically needed for leaders to stand up for what is right in the path of adversity, to speak up and maintain their stand.